Conditional Cash Transfers and Gender-Based Violence: Does the Type of Violence Matter?

Produced by: 
The World Bank
Available from: 
July 2022
Paper author(s): 
Ervin Dervisevic
Elizaveta Perova
Abhilasha Sahay
Financial Economics

The relationship between intimate partner violence and cash transfer programs has been extensively researched, with a consensus that cash transfers are most likely to reduce intimate partner violence. This study uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of a conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines on three types of gender-based violence: (i) intimate partner violence, (ii) domestic violence by non-partners (such as husband's relatives), and (iii) violence outside home. Although the study finds no significant change in intimate partner violence or violence outside of home, it finds a measurable decline in non-partner domestic violence. The study also examines mediating channels through which conditional cash transfers may affect gender-based violence, proposed in earlier literature, namely: (i) stress reduction due to higher income, (ii) increase in women’s empowerment, (iii) increase in women's bargaining power, and (iv) strengthened social networks. The findings provide suggestive evidence of changes in all four mitigating channels. This evidence confirms the potential of conditional cash transfer programs to mitigate gender-based violence beyond intimate partner violence, but indicate that depending on the context, additional interventions may be needed to address specific types of gender-based violence.


Research section: 
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